Tag Archives: construction and repair



In natural sand and gravel content of gravel grains larger than 5 mm should not be At least 10% and not more than 95% by weight. Enriched with sand and gravel mix depending on the content of gravel grains is divided into five groups: 15 to 25% from 25 to 35% from 35 to 50% from 50 to 65% from 65 to 75% Non-delivery of the enriched sand-gravel-gravel mixture. In this rubble is included in the gravel component of sand and gravel mixture. The largest grain size of gravel (D (Naib)) in natural sand and gravel mix shall be not less than 10 mm and 70 mm. Enriched with sand and gravel must have the highest gravel grain size of one of the following values: 10, 20, 40 or 70 mm.

By agreement of the parties permitted delivery of sand and gravel, with grains of gravel particle size over 70 mm but not exceeding 150 mm. The strength of gravel, which is part of the natural and enriched with sand and gravel, it contains grains of soft rock and frost must meet the requirements of gost 8267-93. Sands that are part of the natural sand and gravel on the grain composition must meet the requirements of gost 8736-93 for large, medium, fine and very fine sand. Sands that make up the rich sand and gravel mix shall meet on the grain composition gost 8736-85 for large, medium and fine sand. The content of particles passing through a sieve with a mesh N 014 in the sands that make up the natural sand and gravel shall not exceed 20% enriched 10% by weight. Contents dust and clay particles in natural sand and gravel mix shall not exceed 5%, including clay lumps 1%, while in the enriched – respectively 3% and 0.5% by weight. Sand-gravel mixtures do not contain inclusions clogging. Natural and enriched with sand and gravel, depending on the size of the total effective specific activity of natural radionuclides Aeff, is used: to produce materials, components and structures, used for construction and renovation of residential and public buildings in Aeff to 370 Bq / kg for materials, components and structures used for the construction of industrial buildings and structures, as well as construction of roads within the territories of settlements and areas of promising development in Aeff than 370 Bq / kg to 740 Bq / kg for construction materials for building roads and airfields outside settlements with more than 740 Aeff Bq / kg to 1500 Bq / kg. If necessary, national regulations in force in the state, the value of the specific effective activity of natural radionuclides may be changed within the limits specified above.



Slings used for loading and unloading operations in industry, construction and transport. With the help of slings move most massive and bulky cargo (building materials and construction equipment, timber, rolled steel, container and other), using the crane hook. Slings provide not only grip the cargo, its stable position in space, even load distribution between the elements. Slings general – are universal. Currently in use, slings the following: trucks, rope (made by methods crimp aluminum sleeves or ), textiles (belt and kruglopryadnye), chain, combined (chain, rope, chain, textile, rope, textiles).

To perform certain types of work carried out special kinds of slings on individual drawings and sketches. Determinant in the choice of slings are load mass, its nature, size, shape, mode of using the sling, the method of lifting (slinging), and the working environment – all this is the workload on the sling. Most prevalent in Russia and the cis countries are rope slings: it not only has traditionally formed a working method, but also meets the climatic conditions and specific transport, construction and manufacturing. Feature of the steel wire rope slings – is that they are durable, reliable and sufficiently robust to sudden dynamic loading (metal and the texture of the rope sling smooth, absorb sudden loads). That As for the other performance of the cable sling, then wear a sling is gradual: thus, his condition is easy to monitor and promptly discard. Rope slings are less durable than such chain. Sudden breakage of the sling is practically excluded. Replace them easily, and also cheaper than a chain or mats. Among their shortcomings can be attributed considerable weight, less comfort in work (Restrictions on use in a hostile environment, unsafe for slingers (torn wires of outer strands can get hurt), as well as for goods – can be damaged by the surface).

The Yaroslavl Water Canal


Figure 1 Dynamics of power by a similar scheme being modernized, and other utilities. For example, Yaroslavl water canal, one of the largest in Russia several years ago began a program of staged reconstruction, including replacement of obsolete and uneconomical equipment and dispatch pumping stations. As a result, today most of the pumping stations of the first, second and third climbs here are the installation type Hydro mpc and 2000. These step-up the installation with the cascade and the frequency management, consisting of several vertical multistage pumps, have the highest efficiency. Modern controllers and remote access systems allow you to control the pumping station without the presence of personnel, as well as store and transfer the necessary information, such as power failure or other emergency situations. Together all this not only provides tangible savings, but and provides an opportunity to significantly reduce labor costs – to maintain communication and pumping stations are now required minimal staff, as connected to the system and sensors fire alarm and all the information about operation of pumping stations in the city is displayed on a single control panel in real time. Water treatment utilities basic tasks is not simply a supply of water, but training it to the specified standards parameters. However, due to the obvious environmental degradation almost everywhere in Russia (according to some sources of contamination of surface water up to 70%), cleaning and cooling water is becoming more complex technical problem. Until recently, the primary water treatment technology has been mechanical cleaning, followed by direct chlorination.

Smart Home


Selecting necessary functions for you. But remember – implementation a fully functional installation of automation systems is only possible if an integrated approach to all life support systems. Choose a contractor carefully! Solve the problem of constructing a single engineering system can be Only companies that an integrated approach to design, installation and commissioning of systems that use advanced technologies, implementing financial and technical optimization of the design decisions. What is the algorithm implementation? One of the first stage is pre-project stage – formation of the Terms of Reference. There is a widespread opinion about the possibility of installing automation systems at the stage of completion of engineering works. That – not true. Decided to install those or other systems, especially systems 'Smart Home', was adopted before the beginning of the design of engineering equipment for your home. At this stage, together with specialists from the company you are building list of required systems for you, determine the amount of required functionality, get a preliminary financial assessment of costs.

Further, by far the most important stage of installation – design. After all the technical solutions accepted at this time. Design of engineering systems in a complex with regard to the functions 'Smart House' will consider all possible systems and their interaction, the technical features of equipment, etc. After passing the design of engineering systems, project documentation is passed to the assembly. Laying cable lines and installation of equipment – the actual embodiment of engineered systems. Installation work is usually required time-consuming, however, when working on the project, assembling a skilled team significantly reduces the production works.

The next stage is programming. At this stage specialists carefully studying the features of an object, the customer's needs, giving priority to the implementation of certain requirements, particularly exploitation spend customization software software and create a 'friendly' interface for customer communication management system, scheduling and monitoring. This is followed by stage of commissioning. At this stage, qualified service personnel shall 'Running' and 'synchronization' of engineering systems, connect the appropriate dispatch services, educates the customer (or his staff). And do not forget about maintenance! In operation, for the proper operation of all systems require periodic 'audit' of the systems service engineer. Here is the correct algorithm of the plant systems 'Smart Home'.

Debris Removal


If at the conclusion of the lease space (respectively nondomestic) there is no point of waste disposal, in this case, be sure to sign a contract with specialized organizations in the garbage disposal. When This concluding a contract for waste collection, organization (supplier management) only pays for services for transporting waste to the place of their disposal or recycling (the landfill, as mandated by landfill, waste recycling plant), it costs only with garbage disposal (operation of machinery, staff salaries ). Always need to remember – from the organizations involved in export and disposal of hazardous waste must have a permit (license for this activity). Keep in mind – a contract for garbage collection does not exempt the organization from payment for environmental pollution. This confirms that life and more judicial practice.

For example, one company arbitral tribunal must make a payment for having been removed debris, although there have been considerable money spent on the export of these wastes. Therefore, debris belongs to the company, as a result of which he was formed (the Law on Production and Consumption Waste "). To avoid possible disputes and litigation costs as a consequence we recommend: 1.B text of the lease should always include the item outline responsibilities for removal and disposal under which these duties belong to the tenant, and that the fee is only making the tenant; 2.If you do not want to pay for someone else's garbage, it stipulates in the contract lease immediately and conclude contracts with specialized organizations on removal and recycling of industrial wastes Note: the company can just for the money to pollute and harm to nature. In this case, as a consequence of removal, storage, disposal, recycling refers to the harmful effects on nature, so for all you have to pay. In this way, the whole civilized world, the legislator brings a careful and rational attitude towards surrounding nature. Would like to remind that there are professional penalties for crimes in the sphere of ecology. The resulting emergence of serious consequences for the environment or causing substantial harm to human health.